Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment Plan
Section 9 - Operations


Goto Section in Document:
Table of Contents and Executive Summary            
1. Overview
2. Soil Moisture and Temperature
3. Vegetation and Land Cover
4. Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties
5. Planetary Boundary Layer Studies
6. Satellite Data Acquisition
7. DOE ARM CART Program
8. Oklahoma Mesonet Program
9. Operations
10. Data Management and Availability
11. Science Investigations
12. Sampling Protocols
13. Local Information
14. References
15. List of Participants

9. OPERATIONS

9.1. Experiment Management

Table 19. Experiment Operations Management
Mission Manager (T. Jackson)
Mission Scientist Land (T. Jackson) Mission Scientist Atmosphere (L. Mahrt) Site Operations
Data Collection Coordinators Data Collection Coordinators Chickasha El Reno Central Facility
Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Site Characterization Aircraft
(L. Mahrt)
Flux
Stations
(B. Kustas)
Soundings
(R. Peppler/
C. Peters-Lidard)
Aircraft
(T. Jackson)

Truck
(P. O'Neill)

Surface GSM
(T. Jackson)

Profile
(P. Starks)

Vegetation
(S. Hollinger)

Bulk Density
(L. McKee)

Soil Properties
(B. Mohanty)

G. Heathman P. Starks J. Teske
J. Famiglietti B. Wickel P. O'Neill

9.2. Aircraft Coordination and Plans

Table 20. Aircraft Coordination
Aircraft Mission
Scientist
Aircraft
Manager
Instrument Scientists
NASA P3 T. Jackson P. Bradfield ESTAR (D. LeVine)
LASE (E. Browell)
C Band (C. Swift)
SWTIR (C. Swift)
PSRO Piper Navajo Chieftain T. Jackson L. Gray SLFMR (L. Gray)
CASI (L. Gray)
DOE Cessna Citation T. Schmugge J. Myers TIMS (J. Myers)
NRC Twin Otter L. Mahrt/
D. Entekhabi
I. MacPherson Flux Sensors (I. MacPherson)
NOAA Long-EZ L. Mahrt/
D. Entekhabi
T. Crawford Flux Sensors (R. Dobosy)

9.3 Safety

9.3.1. Field Hazards

There are a number of potential hazards in doing field work. Common sense can avoid some of these;

Work in teams of two

Carry a phone

Know where you are

Dress correctly; long pants, long sleeves, boots, hat

Use sunscreen and bring fluids

There are other hazards that require a proactive approach to minimize. The following information is provided for general purposes and was extracted from materials at cited web sites. In all cases, if you have an emergency get to a hospital. For minor problems contact the area operations manager.

9.3.1.1. Chiggers

Chiggers are the larvae of mites (about ½ mm in size). Chiggers are most often found in low, damp areas where vegetation is heavy, although some species prefer dry areas. Chiggers can cause intense itching and small reddish welts on the skin. The intense irritation and subsequent scratching may result in secondary infection.

Chiggers attach themselves to the skin, hair follicles or pores by inserting their piercing mouthparts. When chiggers attach to humans, they are not usually noticed for some time. During feeding, they inject a fluid into the skin which dissolves tissue. Chiggers feed by sucking up the liquefied tissues.

Itching from chigger bites is usually noticed 4­8 hours after chiggers have attached or have been accidentally removed. The fluid injection causes welts to appear which may last for two weeks. They will also cause a tiny red spot to develop on your skin. As time goes by, the itch will get worse and the red spot will get larger. Some people exhibit an allergic reaction to the injected fluid which results in severe swelling, itching, and fever. People mistakenly believe that chiggers embed themselves in the skin or that the welts contain chiggers. Often scratching at the welt results in secondary infection.

Chiggers prefer to attach on parts of the body where clothing fits tightly or where the flesh is thin, tender, or wrinkled. For this reason, chiggers locate in such areas as the ankles, waistline, knees, or armpits.

Chiggers are easily removed from the skin by taking a hot bath or shower and lathering with soap several times. The bath will kill attached chiggers and others which are not attached. Since symptoms of contact may not appear for several hours, it is not always possible to completely prevent welts caused by chigger bites. Antiseptic should be applied to all welts which do appear. It is important, but hard to remember not to scratch chigger bites. Temporary relief of itching may be achieved with nonprescription local anesthetics available at most drug stores. Studies have shown that meat tenderizer, rubbed into the welt, will alleviate itching, as will calamine lotion. So will antihistamines such as Benadryl.

If you are going into areas suspected of being infested with chiggers, wear protective clothing and use repellents. Repellents should be applied to legs, ankles, cuffs, waist, and sleeves by clothing application or directly to the body as directed by the label. Wear an insect repellent that contains DEET.

(Sources: http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu/tmp/chiggers.html and http://kidshealth.org/kid/games/chigger.html)

9.3.1.2. Ticks

Ticks are flat, grey or brownish and about an eighth of an inch long. When they are filled with their victim's blood they can grow to be about a quarter of an inch around. If a tick bites you, you won't feel any pain. In fact you probably won't even know it until you find the tick clamped on tightly to your body. There may be some redness around the area, and in the case of a deer tick bite, the kind that carries Lyme Disease, a red "bulls­eye" may develop around the area. This pattern could spread over several inches of your body.

When you find a tick on you body, soak a cotton ball with alcohol and swab the tick. This will make it loosen its grip and fall off. Be patient, and don't try to pull the tick off. If you pull it off and it leaves its mouth­parts in you, you might develop an irritation around these remaining pieces of tick. You can also kill ticks on you by swabbing them with a drop of hot wax (ouch!) or fingernail polish. After you've removed the tick, wash the area with soap and water and swab it with an antiseptic such as iodine.

Ticks are very common outdoors during warm weather. When you are outdoors in fields and in the woods, wear long pants and boots. Also spray yourself before you go out with insect repellent containing DEET.

(Source:<http://kidshealth.org/cgi-bin/print_hit_bold.pl/kid/games/tick.html?ticks#first _hit>)

9.3.1.3. Snakes

Everyone will be provided with a snakebite kit which will contain instructions. The following are some emergency procedures

WHAT TO DO IF BITTEN BY A VENOMOUS SNAKE

Allow bite to bleed freely 30 secs.

Use Sawyer Extractor (see below) for 15secs to 1 minute over both fang tracks

Cleanse and/or disinfect bite area throughly if possible

Apply hard direct pressure over bite using a 4 x 4 gauze pad folded in half x 2

Soak gauze pad in Betadine(tm) solution if available if not allergic

Strap gauze pad tightly in place with adhesive tape

Overwrap dressing above and below bite area with ACE bandage

Wrap ACE (elastic) bandage as tight as one would for a sprain. Not too tight.

Check for pulses above and below elastic wrap; if absent it is too tight

Immobilize bitten extremity, use splinting if available.

Try and keep bitten extremity below heart level or in a gravity dependent position

Go to nearest hospital or medical facility as soon as possible

Try and identify, kill and bring ( ONLY if safe to do so) offending snake.

(Source: http://www.xmission.com/~gastown/herpmed/snbite.html)

9.3.2. Drying Ovens

The temperature used for the soil drying ovens is 105oC. Touching the metal sample cans or the inside of the oven may result in burns. Use the safety gloves provided when placing cans in or removing cans from a hot oven. Vegetation drying is conducted at lower temperatures that pose no hazard.

9.4. Site Access

Do not enter any field that you do not have permission to enter. Prior to the experiment all requests for field access are to be directed to Tom Jackson. Do not assume that you can use a field without permission. During the experiment requests are to be made to the Site Manager (Table 16). Requests for installations and unplanned sampling made during the experiment will not be easy to satisfy. Tracking down a landowner and getting permission can take up to a half day of time by our most valuable people. These people will be extremely busy during the experiment. Therefore, if you think you will have specific needs that have not been addressed, solve the problem soon through image analyses or site visits.

In addition, for access to the CF area sites you will have to satisfy ARM requirements. The SGP CART Site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), which means that all ANL safety requirements along with the Department of Energy's safety requirements need to be met.

When visiting the Site you must attend a safety orientation which is given by the Site Safety Officer John Schatz. The items

covered during this orientation include the following:

Introduction to the SGP CART Site

Site map overview

Visitor sign in/badges

Dress code and personal protective equipment

Smoking/Alcohol/Drugs/Fire Arms

Hazards ­ Electrical/Chemical/Non­ionizing radiation/Natural

Facilities

Camera/Video policy

Safety violations/Discrepancy

More can be found at

http://www.arm.gov/docs/sites/sgp/sgp_logistics.html#health.

You should contact the site manager for additional details on arranging visits.

9.5. Communications

It is strongly suggested that all groups have a cellular phone that will operate within the SGP region. This will aid logistics as well as safety.

9.6. Briefings

The default decision for the P3 and the soil moisture sampling is to assume it is on everyday. An aircraft briefing will be held in OKC at the Embassy Suites at 5 pm local time.


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