Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment Plan

Version 6/1/97


CONTENTS

0. Executive Summary
1. Overview
        1.1. Scientific Objectives
        1.2. Approach
        1.3. Summary of key measurements and data products
2. Soil Moisture and Temperature
        2.1. Introduction
        2.2. Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR)
        2.3. C Band Dual Polarization Observations
        2.4. Scanning Low Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR)
        2.5. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)
        2.6. Split Window Thermal Infrared Radiometer (SWTIR)
        2.7. Soil Moisture Sampling
            2.7.1. Surface Soil Moisture Sampling
                2.7.1.1. Site Selection
                2.7.1.2. Sampling Plan
                    2.7.1.2.1. Gravimetric Surface Sampling
                    2.7.1.2.2. TDR Surface Sampling
                    2.7.1.2.3. Bulk Density and Surface Roughness
            2.7.2. Profile Soil Moisture and Temperature Sampling
                2.7.2.1. DOE ARM CART
                2.7.2.2. USDA ARS SHAWMS
                2.7.2.3. Oklahoma Mesonet
                2.7.2.4. Cross Calibration with TDR Method
                2.7.2.5. Dielectric Profile Stations
        2.8. Truck Based L, S and C Band Microwave Radiometer System
        2.9. Tower Based University of Michigan Microwave Radiometers
3. Vegetation and Land Cover
        3.1. Vegetation Sampling
            3.1.1. Sampling Plan
            3.1.2. Resource Requirements
        3.2. Land Cover Classification
        3.3. CASI Aircraft Based Multispectral Data Collection
4. Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties
        4.1. Introduction
        4.2. Soils of the Region
        4.3. Soil Survey Resources
            4.3.1. SSURGO
            4.3.2. STATSGO
            4.3.3. MIADS
        4.4. Soil Characterization Data
            4.4.1. NRCS
            4.4.2. Oklahoma State Mesonet
            4.4.3. Sampling of Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties
                4.4.3.1. Sites
                4.4.3.2. Sampling Techniques
                    4.4.3.2.1. Core Extraction
                    4.4.3.2.2. Surface Characterization36
                4.4.3.3. Laboratory Techniques
        4.5. Topographic Data
            4.5.1. USGS 1 km and 3-arc second
            4.5.2. ARS Little Washita 30 m
5. Planetary Boundary Layer Observations
        5.1. Water Vapor Profiles
        5.2. Airborne Fluxes
            5.2.1. Scientific Objectives
            5.2.2. Types of Aircraft Tracks
            5.2.3. Summary of Survey Flights on May 4, 1997
            5.2.4. Participating Aircraft
                5.2.4.1. NRC Twin Otter
                5.2.4.2. ATDD Long-EZ
        5.3. Surface Flux Measurements
            5.3.1. Participants
            5.3.2. General Plan
        5.4. Tethersonde Program Description
6. Satellite Data Acquisition
        6.1. Landsat TM
        6.2. Priroda
        6.3. AVHRR
        6.4. Radar Satellites
        6.5. SSM/I
        6.6. GOES
7. DOE ARM CART Program
8. Oklahoma Mesonet Program
9. Operations
        9.1. Experiment Management
        9.2. Aircraft Coordination and Plans
        9.3. Safety
            9.3.1. Field Hazards
                9.3.1.1. Chiggers
                9.3.1.2. Ticks
                9.3.1.3. Snakes
            9.3.2. Drying Ovens
        9.4. Site Access
        9.5. Communications
        9.6. Briefings
10. Data Management and Availability
11. Science Investigations
12. Sampling Protocols
        12.1. Surface Gravimetric Soil Moisture
            12.1.1. GSM Sampling Procedure
            12.1.2. GSM Sample Processing
        12.2. Bulk Density
        12.3. Surface Variability Sampling
        12.4. Profile Soil Moisture TDR
        12.5. Vegetation Sampling
            12.5.1. Activities at Each Site
            12.5.2. Plant Canopy Analyzer Protocol
            12.5.3. Fraction of Absorbed PAR Protocol
13. Local Information
        13.1. Important Phone Numbers and Addresses
        13.2. Hotels
        13.3. Maps
14. References
15. List of Participants

0. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment originated from an interdisciplinary investigation, "Soil Moisture Mapping at Satellite Temporal and Spatial Scales" (PI: Thomas J. Jackson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD) selected under the NASA Research Announcement 95­MTPE­03. The main objective of this investigation was to establish that the retrieval algorithms for surface soil moisture developed at higher spatial resolution using truck­ and aircraft­based sensors can be extended to the coarser resolutions expected from satellite platforms. As part of this investigation, a field experiment, built upon the success of a previous experiment of much smaller scale (Jackson et al., 1995), was proposed for 1997. The core of the 1997 experiment involves the deployment of the L­band Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) for daily mapping of surface soil moisture over an area greater than 10,000 km2 and a period on the order of a month. Motivated by the wide­spread interest among hydrologists, soil scientists, ecologists and meteorologists in the problems of the estimation of soil moisture and temperature states at the continental scale and the coupling between land­surface and the atmosphere (Wei, 1995), a workshop was held in Beltsville, Maryland, on August 26­28, 1996; the main purpose of this workshop was to identify additional complementary measurements that would promote the overall utility of the experimental data in interdisciplinary research. Further deliberation of the suggestions and recommendations made at the workshop led to the plan described herein which is really the result of the abundant individual and institutional support and cooperation. Important revisions include a comprehensive flux measurement component, enhanced ground observations of soils and vegetation, and additional aircraft remote sensing instruments to support a wider range of objectives.

The SGP97 Hydrology Experiment as it has developed is a collaboration by a team of interested scientists largely based on existing sponsored scientific investigations and research projects; no science teams were specifically selected for designing and executing the experiment. Cooperation and contributions by many, have resulted in a comprehensive opportunity for multidisciplinary scientific research. Research use of the experimental data is encouraged; care is given to data management to allow easy access upon the completion of quality control and cross calibration and validation.

Chapter 1 provides an overview of the scientific issues and objectives of SGP97, the approach taken in designing the experiment, and a summary of key measurements and data products. Chapters 2­5 contain descriptions of the ground and aircraft based data and information to be collected and assembled. Satellite data acquisition is described in Chapter 6. Brief descriptions of cooperating observing systems are described in Chapters 7 and 8. Operations and management details are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. Chapter 11 describes proposed investigations by cooperators.


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